Use of inter simple sequence repeats and protein markers in assessing genetic diversity and relationships among four rabbit genotypes


  • K. El-Sabrout Alexandria University
  • S.A. Aggag Alexandria University



rabbit, ISSR, protein, genetic diversity, phylogenetic analysis


The importance of DNA and protein applications as powerful tools in breeding programmes is revealed. The inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) technique was used to characterise and determine phylogenetic relationships among 4 genotypes of rabbit, namely Alexandria (Alex), V line (V), New Zealand White (NZW) and California (Cal). Six out of 7 ISSR primers exhibited sufficient variability and were used to characterise the genetic diversity and relationships among studied genotypes. A total of 141 DNA  ands were detected. DNA fragments were generated with 87 (61.7%) being polymorphic, indicating considerable genetic variation among the examined genotypes. While protein electrophoresis provides a precise method for assaying variation in serum proteins which play an important part in productive performance. The results demonstrated 2 specific protein markers in Alexandria rabbits; these specific protein markers may be responsible for the superiority of Alexandria line in weight. Phylogenetic analysis based on Nei and Li unbiased genetic distance illustrated that (Alex & V) and (Cal & V) were genetically closely related. Our results showed that ISSR and protein electrophoresis are useful methods to detect different genetic expressions and understand the variability in some productive traits in rabbits.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

K. El-Sabrout, Alexandria University

Department of Poultry Production

S.A. Aggag, Alexandria University

Department of Genetics


Bud I., Vladau V.V., Petrescu-Mag V. 2011. Rabbit breeding. Ceres Publishing House, Bucharest, Romania.

El-Bayomi K.M., Awad A., Saleh A.A. 2013. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship among some rabbit breeds using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Life Sci. J., 10: 1449-1457.

El-Raffa A.M. 2005. Genetic analysis for productive and reproductive traits of V line rabbits raised under Egyptian conditions. Egypt. J. Poult. Sci., 25: 1217-1231.

El-Raffa A.M. 2007. Formation of a rabbit synthetic line and primary analysis of its productive and reproductive performance. Egypt. J. Poult. Sci., 27: 321-334.

El-Sabrout K., Aggag S.A. 2014. Phylogenetic relationships among different lines of rabbits in Egypt. GJRR, 1: 112-116.

El-Sabrout K., El-Seedy A., Shebl M.K., Soliman F.N.K., Azza El-Sebai 2015. Molecular analysis of three rabbit genotypes using protein markers. GJRR, 2: 5-13.

Estany J., Baselga M., Blasco A., Camacho J. 1989. Mixed model methodology for the estimation of genetic response to selection in litter size of rabbits. Livest. Prod. Sci., 21: 67-75. doi:10.1016/0301-6226(89)90021-3

Fulton J.E. 2008. Molecular genetics in a modern poultry breeding organization. World’s Poult. Sci. J., 64: 171-176. doi:10.1017/S0043933907001778

Hakki E.E., Kayis S.A., Pinarkara E., Sag A. 2007. Inter simple sequence repeat separate efficiently Hemp from Marijuana (Cannabis sativa). Elect. J. Biotechnol., 10: 570-581. doi:10.2225/vol10-issue4-fulltext-4

Hammer Q., Harper D.A.T., Ryan P.D. 2001. PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol. Electr. J., 4: 9.

Nei M., Li W.H. 1979. Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonuclease. In Proc.: National academy of science USA, 7: 5269-5273. doi:10.1073/pnas.76.10.5269

Nikkhoo M., Hadi S., Ghodrat R., Mozhdeh N., Farnaz F., Minoo K. 2011. Measurement of genetic parameters within and between breeder flocks of Arian broiler lines using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 10: 6830-6837. doi: 10.5897/AJB09.2022

Ola A. Galal, Medhat R., Ragaa E. Abd El-Karim. 2013. Analysis of genetic diversity within and among four rabbit genotypes using biochemical and molecular genetic markers. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 12: 2830-2839. doi:10.5897/AJB2013.12332

Pagana K.D. 1998. Mosby’s Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests: Mosby Publications, PA: USA, 431-433.

Pan S., Ye X., Kuc J. 1991. A technique for detection of chitinases, B-1,3-glucanases and protein pattern, after single separation using PAGE or isoelectric focusing. Phytopathol., 81: 970- 974. doi:10.1094/Phyto-81-970

Parthasarathy U., Nandakishore O.P., Nirmal-Babu K., Kumar S., Parthasarathy V.A. 2013. Comparative effectiveness of intersimple sequence repeat and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers to study genetic diversity of Indian Garcinia. Afr. J. Biotechnol, 12: 6443-6451. doi:10.5897/AJB2013.13053

Pradeep M., Sarla N., Siddiq E.A. 2002. Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) polymorphism and its application in plant breeding. Euphytica, 128: 9-17. doi:10.1023/A:1020691618797

Romanov M.N., Wezyk S., Cywa-Benko K., Sakhatsky N.I. 1996. Poultry genetic resources in the countries of eastern Europehistory and current state. Poult. Avian Biol. Rev., 7: 1-29.

TotalLab Quant®, 2013 User’s Guide: Version 13, NC: USA. Wilkinson S., Wiener P., Teverson D., Haley C.S., Hocking P.M. 2011. Characterization of the genetic diversity, structure and admixture of British chicken breeds. Anim. Genet., 43: 552-563. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2052.2011.02296.x